Tough Questions for Muslims
Does Deuteronomy 18:18 Prophesy of Muhammad?
“I will raise up a prophet
from among their brothers like you,
and I will put My words in his mouth,
and he shall speak to them
all that I command him”
All Rights Reserved
1st Edition 2006
English Title: Does Deuteronomy 18:18 Prophesy of Muhammad?
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What Muslims Believe
The Qur'an states in Sura 7:157, “[Those who] follow the messenger, the unlearned Prophet (an-nabi al-ummi, i.e. Muhammad), whom they find mentioned in the Tawrat (Torah) and in the Injil (Gospel), he commands them what is just and forbids them what is evil...” Muslims believe, from this verse, that the Bible contains prophecies about Muhammad. One of the primary biblical prophecies used is Deuteronomy 18:18 in the Torah. The verse says:
“I will raise up a prophet from among their brothers like you, and I will put My words in his mouth, and he shall speak to them all that I command him.”
They claim the foretold prophet is from among the brothers of the Israelites and not from among the Israelites themselves. Since Muhammad is “like” Moses as the prophecy states and they believe him to be a descendant of Ishmael, who in Semitic culture would be considered a “brother” to Israel, they deduce that the Ishmaelites are the “brothers,” and Muhammad is the prophet spoken of in Deuteronomy 18:18. To see if the Muslim claim is valid we will examine who “their brothers” are in Part I and examine who is “like” Moses in Part II.
To Whom is God Speaking
The book of Deuteronomy is addressed to the descendants of the twelve sons of Jacob, collectively known as Israel. Israel is a name given to Jacob, who is the son of Isaac, who is the son of Abraham. “And he said, ‘Your name shall no longer be Jacob, but Israel; for you have striven with God and with men and have prevailed.’ ” (Genesis 32:28)
The name Israel later became synonymous with Jacob’s descendants. “Now these are the names of the sons of Israel who came to Egypt with Jacob; they came each one with his household: Reuben, Simeon, Levi and Judah; Issachar, Zebulun and Benjamin; Dan and Naphtali, Gad and Asher. And all the persons who came from the loins of Jacob were seventy in number, but Joseph was already in Egypt.” (Exodus 1:1-5) In addition to being known as Israel, Jacob's twelve sons and their descendants became known as the twelve tribes of Israel and the sons of Israel.
The context of Deuteronomy in general is God speaking to the twelve tribes of Israel through Moses:
· Deuteronomy 5:1 “Then Moses summoned all Israel, and said to them, ‘Hear, O Israel . . .’ ”
· Deuteronomy 9:1 “Hear, O Israel! . . .”
A further context of Deuteronomy 18:18 can be found in Deuteronomy 18:17. Moses tells Israel: “Yahweh said to me,” and then in verse 18, the verse in question, Moses tells Israel what God said.
Who are “Their Brothers”
“Your brothers” and “their brothers” is a common expression used throughout the biblical books of Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy – books where the primary theme is God speaking through Moses to Israel. Apart from references to true sibling relationships, the expression almost always signifies either a tribe or subset of tribes within the people of Israel, or all twelve tribes of Israel collectively.
Examples of God addressing a tribe and a subset of tribes while referencing the rest of Israel as “their/your brothers”:
· “The Levitical priests, the whole tribe of Levi, shall have no portion or inheritance with Israel; they shall eat Yahweh’s offerings by fire and His portion. They shall have no inheritance among their brothers; Yahweh is their inheritance, as He promised them.” (Deuteronomy 18:1-2) “They” is the tribe of Levi; “their brothers” are the remaining eleven tribes.
· “Then I commanded you at that time, saying, ‘Yahweh your God has given you this land to possess it; all you valiant men shall cross over armed before your brothers, the sons of Israel.’ ” (Deuteronomy 3:18) In context, “you” refers to Israel’s tribes of Reuben, Gad and ½ of Manasseh, and “your brothers” refers to Israel’s remaining nine-and-a-half tribes.
Examples of God addressing all of Israel while referencing all of Israel as “your brothers”:
· “But in respect to your brothers, the sons of Israel, you shall not rule with severity over one another.” (Leviticus 25:46) “You” refers to all of Israel, and “your brothers” refers to all of Israel.
· “You shall surely set a king over you whom Yahweh your God chooses, one from among your brothers you shall set as king over yourselves; you may not put a foreigner over yourselves who is not your brother. . . . that his heart may not be lifted up above his brothers and that he may not turn aside from the commandment, to the right or the left; in order that he and his sons may continue long in his kingdom in the midst of Israel.” (Deuteronomy 17:15, 20) “You” refers to all of Israel, and “your brother(s)” and “his brothers” refers to all of Israel. We know this is true because God chose Saul from the tribe of Benjamin as the first king over Israel (see 1 Samuel 9:15-10:24), and ever subsequent king came from the sons of Israel.
Whether God addresses one tribe, multiple tribes, or all of Israel, the reference to “brothers” means the descendants of Israel in each case. Additional references include Exodus 1:6; 2:11; 4:18; 32:27; Leviticus 10:6; 21:10; 25:46; Numbers 8:26; 16:10; 18:2; 20:3; 25:6; 32:6; Deuteronomy 1:16, 28; 3:18, 20; 10:9; 15:7; 23:19; 24:7, 14 et.al.
Probability that “Their Brothers”
Means the Ishmaelites
It is not uncommon for kinsmen to be called brothers in the Semitic culture. In Genesis 16:12 we read: “He [the Ishmaelites] will dwell before the face of all his brothers.” The “brothers” of the Ishmaelites, in this verse, likely include Isaac's descendants. Isaac was Ishmael's half-brother. And it is no surprise that in Numbers 20:14 and Deuteronomy 2:4 and 23:7, the Edomites (descendants of Israel’s brother Esau) are called brothers of the Israelites. However, in Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy – books where the primary theme is God speaking through Moses to Israel – there is not one reference of Israel or his descendants being “brothers” to Ishmael or his descendants. These facts alone — the lack of such a reference concerning the Ishmaelites, coupled with the numerous references of Israel being “brothers” amongst themselves — makes it contextually improbable that “among their brothers” in Deuteronomy 18:18 identifies the Ishmaelites and not the Israelites.
Interprets Deuteronomy 18:18
In Deuteronomy 18:15, Moses first introduces Yahweh’s coming prophet by telling the people of Israel:
“Yahweh your God will raise up for you a prophet like me from among you, from your brothers, you shall listen to him.”
God tells Moses that He will raise up a prophet “from among you.” This verse makes it clear that the prophet will be from among Israel themselves. God is speaking to Israel through Moses, so “among you” means from among Israel. It can not mean from among the Ishmaelites because in the entire book of Deuteronomy, as well as Exodus, Leviticus and Numbers, the Ishmaelites were never once spoken to by God. The Ishmaelites were not held captive in Egypt, they were not delivered from bondage by Yahweh through Moses, they were not given the law at Mount Sinai in Horeb, they did not have the law repeated to them before they entered Canaan, and they were not among Israel when Moses gave them this word from God. “From among you” is speaking of the Israelites themselves, not the Ishmaelites.
Final Analysis of Part I
“I will raise up a prophet from among their brothers like you, and I will put My words in his mouth, and he shall speak to them all that I command him.” (Deuteronomy 18:18)
We know that:
· In Deuteronomy 18:18, Moses is telling the descendants of Israel what God has told him.
· In Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy, “brothers” is used multiple times in a variety of ways to reference the descendants of Israel but never once refers to the Ishmaelites.
· Deuteronomy 18:15 says the prophet will be “from among you,” meaning from among Israel, the people God was speaking to through Moses.
· Identifying Israel with the expressions, “from among you” and “among their brothers,” is in complete harmony within Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy, while identifying the Ishmaelites with the same expressions does not harmonize.
Therefore, “their brothers” refers to the descendants of Israel. The prophet, who will be like Moses, will come from the descendants of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob (Israel). The claim that Deuteronomy 18:18 prophesies of Muhammad is not valid if Muhammad is not a descendant of Israel.
Muslims believe that the prophet of Deuteronomy 18:18 is Muhammad, while Christians believe that it is Christ. Part I shows us that the prophet must be a descendant of Israel. We will examine another aspect of Deuteronomy 18:18 to see whether Muhammad or Christ better fits the prophecy as a whole.
God tells Moses in the verse that the prophet will be like Moses:
“I will raise up a prophet from among their brothers like you...”
In an attempt to prove Muhammad is the prophet, Muslims point out that Moses and Muhammad are alike, while Moses and Christ are not alike.
Had a father and a mother
Had a father and a mother
Had only a mother (Maryam)
Was begotten the natural way
Was begotten the natural way
Was begotten miraculously
Married and had children
Married and had children
Not married and no children
Was buried in the earth
Was buried in the earth
Is not buried in the earth
Died aged more than 60 years
Died aged more than 60 years
Died aged less than 60
Did not fight battles
Spiritual and legal teachings
Spiritual and legal teachings
Christians also produce comparisons to support their claim that Christ is the prophet and not Muhammad. But are these comparisons valid? Outside of God’s intended meaning behind the likeness of the prophets, all of these comparisons are insignificant. If someone tells you that you are like their friend, you would never assume that the likeness that they are talking about has no boundaries. They have a particular likeness in mind when they tell you this. Therefore, we must determine what God meant by His statement. We must examine the context of God’s statement and the comparisons of Moses to other prophets within God’s Word.
Context of Deuteronomy 18:18
Starting at verse 15.
“Yahweh your God will raise up for you a prophet like me from among you, from your brothers, you shall listen to him. This is according to all that you asked of Yahweh your God in Horeb on the day of the assembly, saying, ‘Let me not hear again the voice of Yahweh my God, let me not see this great fire anymore, lest I die.’ And Yahweh said to me, ‘They have spoken well. I will raise up a prophet from among their brothers like you, and I will put My words in his mouth, and he shall speak to them all that I command him. And it shall come about that whoever will not listen to My words which he shall speak in My name, I Myself will require of him. But the prophet who shall speak a word presumptuously in My name which I have not commanded him to speak, or which he shall speak in the name of other gods, that prophet shall die.’ ” (Deuteronomy 18:15-20)
According to All that You Asked
We see that the prophet like Moses is raised up in accordance with Israel’s request in Horeb (at Mt. Sinai). For fear of directly hearing God’s voice from the midst of the fire in Horeb, Israel asked Moses to continue to be their mediator: “Go near and hear all that Yahweh our God says; then speak to us all that Yahweh our God will speak to you, and we will hear and do it.” (Deuteronomy 5:27) This observation along with God’s statement “I will put My words in his mouth, and he shall speak to them,” gives us confidence to say that God intended the prophet to be a mediator between people and God just like Moses.
In this point, both Muslims and Christians have strong arguments for their view. Muslims claim that, like Moses, Muhammad was a mediator of law. Christians claim that, like Moses, Jesus is mediator of a covenant and remains mediator between God and man.
I will put My Words in His Mouth...He Shall Speak to Them All that I Command...He Shall Speak in My Name
It can be said that all recognized prophets of any religion speak on behalf of their god; but one of the conditions of this prophet is that he would speak the words of Yahweh, the proper name of God found more than 6,000 times in the Old Testament Bible (Tawrat). While Christians acknowledge that Yahweh is the God of the Bible, the Father of Jesus, and the God that gave Jesus His words to speak, Islam has no place for the name Yahweh. Nearly every sura of the Qur’an starts with “In the name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful.” Muhammad spoke in the name of Allah, but not in the name of Yahweh. Despite grammatical difficulties, some Muslims believe that Allah is both the Arabic equivalent of God and the proper name of God. They can not justify Muhammad as the promised prophet who will speak the words of Yahweh. The absence of Yahweh in Islam is an astounding reality that is often overlooked.
The name Yahweh can not be found in the New Testament Bible (Injil), because reverence for the divine name led to the practice of avoiding its use. Jesus spoke in the name of His Father, who is Yahweh of the Old Testament.
“The words that I say to you I do not speak on My own initiative, but the Father abiding in Me does His works.” (John 14:10)
The multitudes knew that Jesus came in the name of their Lord, Yahweh.
“And the multitudes going before Him, and those who followed after were crying out, saying, ‘Hosanna to the Son of David; Blessed is He who comes in the name of the Lord; Hosanna in the highest!’” (Matthew 21:9)
In addition, Jesus’ God-given Hebrew name, Yehoshua (Arabic, Yasu’u) in Matthew 1:21 literally means Yahweh saving. Jesus not only spoke in the name of His Father, Yahweh, but Yahweh was in Him working to save the world from their sins. Islam does not call Jesus Yasu’u (Arabic transliteration of Yehoshua) as Arabic speaking Christians do, but they call him ‘Isa, which bears no trace of Yahweh. Jesus spoke in the name of His Father, Yahweh of the Old Testament. Whether or not Muhammad spoke in the name of Yahweh is a serious question since Islam has hidden every trace of Yahweh in their revered books.
Speak a Word Presumptuously which I have not Commanded,
Or in the Name of Other Gods, That Prophet Shall Die
Jesus is credited with doing the deeds of, speaking the words of, and fulfilling the will of God (John 5:19; 17:8; 14:10; 4:31 et al.). Jesus said,
“For I did not speak on My own initiative, but the Father Himself who sent Me has given Me commandment, what to say, and what to speak. And I know that His commandment is eternal life; therefore the things I speak, I speak just as the Father has told Me.” (John 12:49-50)
Jesus never spoke a word presumptuously or in the name of other gods.
Muhammad however is credited with speaking a word presumptuously that God did not command him to speak. It is well known among Muslim scholars that he spoke the words of Satan, exalting pagan idols Al-Lat, Al-Uzza and Manat. Then he prostrated himself in the Mosque, among a joyful group of idol worshipers, confirming the satanic words that he brought forth. Sura 53:19-20 contain two phrases Muhammad spoke that are credited to Allah: “Have you considered Al-Lat and Al-Uzza and Manat, the other third?” As Muhammad meditated on this, Satan put upon his tongue and he proclaimed: “these are the exalted Gharaniq whose intercession is approved.” Muhammad could not distinguish between the voice of Allah and the voice of Satan. Some time later Jibril came to Muhammad and told him that he spoke what Allah did not say to him. In the end, Allah annulled what Satan had given Muhammad, then established in its place Sura 53:21, 22 and 23 that are in the Qur’an today. For this reason the so-called “satanic verses” that Muhammad declared on behalf of other gods are not in the Qur’an but can be found in Ibn Ishaq’s Sira, The Life of Muhammad, a book Muslims revere.
Muhammad’s speaking error puts him in contradiction with the speech of the prophet of Deuteronomy 18:18.
Comparison of Moses to Other Prophets
In Deuteronomy 34:10-12, God’s Word provides key characteristics of Moses and compares him to other prophets.
“Since that time no prophet has risen in Israel like Moses, whom Yahweh knew face to face, for all the signs and wonders which Yahweh sent him to perform in the land of Egypt against Pharaoh, all his servants, and all his land, and for all the mighty power and for all the great terror which Moses performed in the sight of all Israel.”
We see no prophet had yet risen (Hebrew – qum) like Moses, while in Deuteronomy 18:18 God says He will raise (qum) up a prophet like Moses. Since the prophet is to be like Moses, it would be appropriate to use the same characteristics that God’s Word uses when comparing Moses to other prophets and not generate a list of characteristics that conveniently compliment our bias.
Whom Yahweh Knew Face to Face
God’s Word tells us that an important uniqueness of Moses was that God knew him face to face. Exodus 33:11 gives us an idea what that means: “Thus Yahweh used to speak to Moses face to face, just as a man speaks to his friend.” Moses and God talked to each other like friends.
There is no one who had a more intimate relationship with God than Jesus Christ. In His conversation with God just prior to His arrest, Jesus said:
“Now, Father, glorify Me together with Yourself, with the glory which I had with You before the world was.” (John 17:5) “…You loved Me before the foundation of the world. O righteous Father, although the world has not known You, yet I have known You.” (John 17:24-25)
God and Jesus speak not only “as a man speaks to his friend” but also as a father speaks to his son. According to Jesus, they had this glorious relationship together before the world was; He was loved by God before the world was created; and no one in the world knows God like He does. Even today, both Muslims and Christians believe that Jesus is alive and near to God (see Qur’an Sura 3:55; 4:158 – Bible Mark 16:19; John 20:17)
Muhammad’s first revelation from Allah came through the angel Jibril. According to Bukhari Vol. 9 #111, it appears that Muhammad had some misgivings about his initial experience and intended several times to throw himself from the tops of high mountains. During Muhammad’s earliest encounter with Allah, he neither spoke to Allah face to face nor had a friendship with Allah. In fact, his experience nearly caused him to commit suicide.
Muslims do have a case for Muhammad dialoguing with Allah later in his ministry in what is referred to as his night journey. He traveled over night from Mecca to Jerusalem on a very fast horse-like animal and was taken into heaven by Jibril. While there he spoke with Allah. Sura 17:60 tells us this journey was a vision/dream (ru’ya). Bukhari Vol. 9 #608 tells us angels came to him “while he was sleeping in the Sacred Mosque” and “his eyes were sleeping but his heart was not.” The hadith ends by telling us that after Muhammad descended he “woke while he was in the Sacred Mosque.” Though some Muslims would disagree, it seems from this account that his journey was spiritual and that he did not physically move from his bed.
This was an experience similar to other prophets like Ezekiel who “saw visions of God” and had “the hand of Yahweh come upon him” (Ezekiel 1:1, 3). Isaiah “saw the Lord sitting on a throne, lofty and exalted” (Isaiah 6:1). Then he “heard the voice of the Lord, saying, ‘Whom shall I send, and who will go for Us?’ Then I [Isaiah] said, ‘Here am I. Send me!’ ” The apostle Paul was taken to the third heaven and paradise (2 Corinthians 12:2-4), and the apostle John gives a vivid and detailed account of his journey in the Spirit in which he sees heaven opened (Revelation 1:10; 19:11).
It is difficult to deem Muhammad’s night journey, as well as the accounts of biblical prophets and apostles, to be like God speaking to Moses face to face just as a man speaks to his friend.
Signs and Wonders, and Mighty Power
Other traits that God ascribes to Moses and no other prophet in his time were the signs and wonders and mighty power that Moses displayed. In Biblical accounts, Moses performed about forty miracles by the power of God as Israel was delivered from the bondage of slavery in Egypt. Jesus performed about forty recorded miracles during His earthly ministry of delivering God’s people from the bondage of slavery to sin.
The Qur’an states that Allah gave Moses nine clear signs (Sura 17:101; 27:12). Allah also gave Christ clear signs (Sura 2:87, 253; 3:49, 5:110, 43:63). Christ is a “sign unto men,” a “sign to all worlds,” and “appointed to be a sign” to all people (Sura 19:21; 21:91; 23:50). According to the Qur’an, Christ created (khalaqa) a bird out of clay and gave it life, healed the blind, cleansed the lepers, and brought the dead to life (Sura 3:49, 5:110). Like Moses, signs, wonders and mighty power accompanied Christ’s work in the Qur’an and in the Bible.
Some Muslims credit Muhammad with ten or more minor miracles based on different traditions. They are similar in standing to miracles that God performed among prophets and non-prophets alike throughout the Bible. However, the Qur’an confirms that no signs, wonders or mighty powers were given to Muhammad. Jews, pagans, and even some Muslims questioned Muhammad’s claim as a prophet because signs and wonders did not accompany him:
“And they say: ‘Why are not signs sent down upon him from his Lord’? Say: ‘The signs are only with Allah, and I am only a plain warner.’ ” (Sura 29:50, see also 17:59, 6:109, 17:90-93, 2:145, 13:27, 6:37, 7:203, 13:7, 20:133 et al.).
Tradition has Muslims believe that the Qur’an is Muhammad’s miracle, but even this claim can not be found in the Qur’an. Christ, like Moses, performed signs and wonders, but Muhammad did not.
God also says Moses’ prophethood was unique because of the great terror which Moses performed in the sight of all Israel. This would include the judgments on Pharaoh (Firon) and the judgments on disobedient Israel after being delivered from Egypt (Qur’an Sura 7:133,136; 4:153; 7:155 et al. – Bible Exodus 7:14-11:10; 32:35; Numbers 11:1,33; 12:10; 14:36-37; 16:33-35,44-49; 21:6-9; 25:7-8).
Again, Muslims have an argument for their view. Muhammad brought terror upon those he conquered in battle, which may in some sense be likened to the terrifying judgments of God through Moses upon Egypt and Israel.
Jesus’ earthly ministry differs from Moses’ ministry in this regard. In reference to Moses making atonement for the people of Israel and stopping the Lord’s wrath in the wilderness (Numbers 21:9), Jesus said:
“And as Moses lifted up the serpent in the wilderness, even so must the Son of Man be lifted up; that whoever believes may in Him have eternal life. For God so loved the world, that He gave His only begotten Son, that whoever believes in Him should not perish, but have eternal life. For God did not send the Son into the world to judge the world, but that the world should be saved through Him. He who believes in Him is not judged; he who does not believe has been judged already, because he has not believed in the name of the only begotten Son of God.” (John 3:14-18)
Jesus came to atone for the sins of man and stop God’s wrath for all those who believe in Him – the Son of God, Yahweh Saving.
However, just as Muslims believe that Christ will return to the earth, Christ’s followers also believe He will return. With Him will come terrifying acts of judgment to complete this aspect of being a prophet like Moses.
“And I saw heaven opened; and behold, a white horse, and He who sat upon it is called Faithful and True; and in righteousness He judges and wages war. And His eyes are a flame of fire, and upon His head are many diadems; and He has a name written upon Him which no one knows except Himself. And He is clothed with a robe dipped in blood; and His name is called The Word of God. And the armies which are in heaven, clothed in fine linen, white and clean, were following Him on white horses. And from His mouth comes a sharp sword, so that with it He may smite the nations; and He will rule them with a rod of iron; and He treads the wine press of the fierce wrath of God, the Almighty. And on His robe and on His thigh He has a name written, “KING OF KINGS, AND LORD OF LORDS.” (Revelation 19:11-16)
It will be a time of great terror for all those among the nations who oppose Jesus Christ.
Confirmation in the New Testament (Injil)
The New Testament confirms that Jesus is the promised prophet who God raised up like Moses.
“Philip found Nathanael and said to him, ‘We have found Him of whom Moses in the Law and also the Prophets wrote—Jesus of Nazareth, the son of Joseph.’ ” (John 1:45 see also Luke 24:27,44)
Jesus said, “For if you believed Moses, you would believe Me, for he wrote about Me.” (John 5:46)
Acts 3:22 is a direct quote of Deuteronomy 18:15 (which verse 18 mirrors) by the Apostle Peter in his sermon to Israel concerning Jesus’ second coming:
“But the things which God announced beforehand by the mouth of all the prophets, that His Christ would suffer, He has thus fulfilled. Therefore repent and return, so that your sins may be wiped away, in order that times of refreshing may come from the presence of the Lord; and that He may send Jesus, the Christ appointed for you, whom heaven must receive until the period of restoration of all things about which God spoke by the mouth of His holy prophets from ancient time. Moses said, ‘The Lord God will raise up for you a prophet like me from your brethren; to Him you shall give heed to everything He says to you.’ ” (Acts 3:18-22)
We know that the promised prophet will be like Moses as follows:
· Christ was mediator of a new covenant.
· Muhammad was mediator of law.
· Christ spoke the words of His Father, Yahweh of the Old Testament.
· Muslims must concede that Yahweh is the proper name of Allah for this truth to apply to Muhammad.
· Jesus spoke just as God had told Him, and He never went back on the words He spoke.
· Muhammad was corrected by the angel Jibril for speaking in Allah’s name what Satan gave him to say on behalf of other gods.
· Christ’s second coming will bring the fierce wrath of God and great terror upon those among the nations who oppose Him, thus fulfilling this aspect of being a prophet like Moses.
· Muhammad brought terror upon some with whom he battled, which may in some sense be likened to the terrifying judgments that accompanied Moses.
· The Injil states that Moses wrote of Jesus and directly quotes Deut. 18:15 (which verse 18 mirrors) as prophesying of Jesus.
· Neither the Injil nor the Qur’an link Muhammad to words of Moses or to Deut. 18:18.
God has given us many signs to help us see that Deuteronomy 18:18 prophesies of Jesus. It is Jesus who is a descendent of Israel that God has raised up like Moses. Deuteronomy 18:18 is not a prophecy of Muhammad.
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